Original Research

Classification of Setswana short stories

M.J. Mojalefa, M.M. Makgato
Literator | Vol 28, No 2 | a163 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/lit.v28i2.163 | © 2007 M.J. Mojalefa, M.M. Makgato | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 30 July 2007 | Published: 30 July 2007

About the author(s)

M.J. Mojalefa, Department of African Languages, University of Pretoria, South Africa
M.M. Makgato, Department of African Languages, University of Pretoria, South Africa

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The aim of this article is to reclassify Setswana short stories according to their treatment of female characters. Critics such as Ranamane have classified Setswana literary works according to year of publication, without giving any valid reasons for this type of classification. This article, focusing on the development of the characterisation of women in Setswana short stories, classifies stories based on three periods, namely the phase of womanism, the experimental phase and the phase of feminism. In the phase of womanism, the outstanding features of characterisation of females include oppression and illtreatment, discrimination and segregation, ignorance, physical violence against females and limitation of the role of women to caring for the extended family. In the experimental phase, features include liberation of a female character, freedom of the whole society, agreement on marriage and working together as a team to solve the problems of society. The phase of feminism is identified by features of characterisation of females such as eradication of oppression, the fight for equality between women and men, removal of segregation and discrimination and also change across the whole of society.


Classification; Experimental Phase; Feminism; Womanism; Setswana Short Stories


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